Saturday, March 21, 2015

Marie Curie by HatimArahou

Marie Curie

Marie Curie c1920.jpg

Marie Curie was born in 7 November 1986 and she died in 4 July 1934. She was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris. She was born in Maria Salomea Sklodowska in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of theRussian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicistHenri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres. Curie died in 1934 at the sanatorium of Sancellemoz, France, due to aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation – including carrying test tubes.

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